外贸价格和贸易术语

2018年7月5日10:24:50 发表评论 73

一、贸易术语

E组: 买方负责所有费用

EX: Ex Works 工厂交货,卖方义务最少(minimum obligation)

卖方负责出口清关则为FCA

F组: 买家负责运费,风险以买方所在国交货划分

FOB: Free On Board

卖家:港口交货,出口清关,提供商业发票、装船提单,承担港口装船交货前风险。

买家:支付货款,进口清关,托运并通知卖家,决定购买保险与否,接受单据收取货物,承担出口国港口装船交货后风险

出口美国应注意FOB Vessel才需要由卖方负责出口清关手续

FCA: Free Carrier 货交承运人,其实就是FOB的扩展,适用于任何运输方式。

卖方可协助安排运输,但费用和风险由买方负责

FAS: Free Along Ship,近似FOB,风险交接点变成船边码头或驳船靠边,而不是船舷

C组: 卖家负责运费,风险以买方所在国交货划分

CFR: Cost and Freight

卖家:港口交货,出口清关,托运并及时充分地通知买家(sufficient notice),以便买家办理保险,提供装船提单、商业发票,承担港口装船交货前风险

买家:支付货款,进口清关,决定购买保险与否,接受单据收取货物,承担出口国港口装船交货后风险

CPT: Carriage paid to 运费付至,CFR的扩展,卖家负责托运

CIF: Cost, insurance and Freight

卖家:港口交货,出口清关,托运并办理保险,提供装船提单、商业发票、保险单,承担港口装船交货前风险

买家:支付货款,进口清关,接受单据收取货物,承担出口国港口装船交货后风险

CIP: Carriage and Freight Paid to 运费、保险付至,CIF扩展,卖家负责托运和投保

D组: 卖家所在国交货,卖方负责运费,风险以卖方所在国交货划分

DAF: Delivered At Frontier,边境交货,买方负责托运和投保,承担货物交接后风险

DES: Delivered Ex Ship,目的港船上交货,卖方负责到达目的港前一切费用和风险,

卖方负责进口清关,也叫EXS

DEQ: Delivered Ex Quay,DES变型,目的港码头交货

卖方负责码头上交货前一切费用和风险,也叫EXQ

DDU: Delivered Duty Unpaid,未完税交货,DEQ的扩展,适合任何运输方式

DDP: Delivered Duty Paid,完税交货,卖家负责进出口清关,交货前一切费用和风险,

卖方义务最多maximum obligation

二、佣金和折扣的计算

Price including commission US$335 per metric ton CIF New York including 2% commission

US $ 300 per metric ton CIFC2% New York 每公吨335美元CIF2%纽约

US $ 300 per metric ton FOB Shanghai less 2% discount 每公吨FOB上海减折扣2%

US $ 300 per metric ton FOB Shanghai net 每公吨300美元FOB 上海净价

货物交付

一、关键概念

Time of delivery 交货时间 F和C组术语条件下,两者是一致的;

Time of shipment 装运时间 由于推定交货和实际交货的区别,两者最好还是区别使用

Constructive Delivery 推定交货

Actual Delivery 实际交货

Port of Shipment 装运港,可一个或多个,具名或只注范围,如China Port

Port of Destination 目的港,对卖方而言,最好比较确定、可行

Partial Shipment 分批装运分批装运 shipment by instalments

Transshipment 转运

二、装运条款

Shipment during Oct. /Nov. 2009 with partial shipments and transshipments allowed

Shipment at or before/ no later than the end of JuneShipment: one 40’ container from

China port to New York, USA on or before Apr. 20th

Shipment within 60 days after receipt of L/C这种条款一般同时也需要规定L/C到达期限

The Buyers must open the relevant L/C to reach the Sellers before June 20th

During Mar./Apr. in two equal lots/shipments, transshipment is prohibited

Shipment during May from Shanghai to London. The sellers shall advise the Buyers 45 days before the month of shipment of the time the goods be ready for shipment. Partial shipment is prohibited, to be transshipped at Hong Kong

三、海运提单 B/L Bill of Loading

On Board B/L=Shipped B/L, Received For Shipment B/L

已装船提单,备运提单(收讫待运提单)

提单签发日期 B/L date = 装船日期 Shipment date

Clean B/L, Unclean B/L=Foul B/L 清洁提单,不清洁提单

Straight B/L, Bearer B/L, Order B/L

记名/收货人抬头提单,不记名/来人抬头提单,指示提单

to bearer 货交提单持有人或者留空

to order/to the order of 凭指示/凭某人指示 ->承运人背书(空白、记名)

Direct B/L, Transshipment B/L, Through B/L

直达提单,转船提单,联运提单

Liner B/L, Charter Party B/L 班轮提单,租船提单

Long form B/L, Short Form B/L 全式提单,略式提单

Original B/L, Copy B/L, Full Set B/L 正本提单,副本提单,全套提单

Stale B/L, On Deck B/L, House B/L 过期提单,甲板提单,运输代理行提单

四、集装箱 Container

FCL 整箱货,full container load

LCL 拼箱货,less than container load

CY 堆场,container yard

CFS 集装箱货运站,container freight station

D/R 场站单据,dock receipt,堆场收据,装船后可换B/L

CLP 装箱单,container load plan

CTB/L 联运提单,combined transport B/L

MTD 多式联运单据,multi-modal transport document

E/R 设备交接单,equipment receipt

Inland Transport Charge 内陆运输费

LCL Service Charge 拼箱服务费

Terminal Handling Charges 堆场服务费

Fee for Use Container and Other Equipments 集装箱及其他设备使用费

Box-rate 包箱费率

FAK FAK包箱费率,freight for all kinds,不分种类,不计量,统一单箱费用

FCS FCS包箱费率,freight for class,不同货物分级收费,W/M

FCB FCB包箱费率,freight for class & basis

五、保险 Insurance

1)保险原则

2)保险类别

3)保险内容

4)保险计算

5)保险条款

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